Last Entrainment Sequence: A Novel Diagnostic Technique for Atrial Tachycardia Mimicking Other Supraventricular Tachycardias

Mitsunori Maruyama, Hiroshige Yamabe, Seiji Takatsuki, Yuta Seki, Shunsuke Uetake, Tsuyoshi Nohara, Ippei Tsuboi, Shiro Ishihara, Yasushi Miyauchi, Wataru Shimizu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Adenosine-sensitive re-entrant atrial tachycardia (AT) originating from near the atrioventricular (AV) node or AV annulus resembles other supraventricular tachycardias (SVTs), and the differential diagnosis is sometimes challenging. Objectives: This study sought to develop a novel technique to distinguish adenosine-sensitive re-entrant AT from AV nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia (ORT). Methods: The study retrospectively studied 117 re-entrant SVTs that were successfully entrained by atrial overdrive pacing (AOP) (27 adenosine-sensitive re-entrant ATs, 63 AVNRTs, 27 ORTs). If the second atrial electrogram after AOP (A2) at the earliest atrial activation site (EAAS) accelerated to the pacing cycle length, the EAAS was considered orthodromically activated. Then, we compared the sequence of A2 and the last entrained His bundle (H∗) and QRS complex (V∗). The study hypothesized that the last entrained impulse would activate the EAAS before it enters the AV node, His bundle, and ventricle during AT (A2-H∗-V∗) but would activate the EAAS after the His bundle activation during AVNRT and ORT (H∗-V∗-A2 or H∗-A2-V∗). Results: Orthodromic EAAS activation was documented during AOP in 84 SVTs (72%) when performing AOP from sites proximal to the entrance of SVTs. A2-H∗-V∗ responses were observed in 21 of 25 ATs, but were never for AVNRTs or ORTs. All ORTs and fast-slow AVNRTs had H∗-V∗-A2 responses. Eleven of 21 slow-fast AVNRTs had H∗-A2-V∗ responses. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the A2-H∗-V∗ response for diagnosing AT were 84%, 100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively. Conclusions: The last entrainment sequence was useful for differentiating ATs with diagnostic difficulties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1289-1300
Number of pages12
JournalJACC: Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct


  • ablation
  • atrial tachycardia
  • diagnosis
  • entrainment
  • supraventricular tachycardia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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