Background: The effects of inhalational anesthetics on the microcirculation, including leukocyte dynamics, remain to be clarified. The authors investigated halothane and sevoflurane anesthesia to determine if these agents evoked leukocyte adhesion through endothelial cell-dependent mechanisms involving such adhesion molecules. Methods: Rats were anesthetized with halothane or sevoflurane in 100% oxygen and the lungs were mechanically ventilated. Leukocyte behavior in mesenteric venules was recorded through intravital video microscopy under monitoring microvascular hemodynamics. To examine the mechanisms for leukocyte rolling and adhesion, these studies were repeated after animals were pretreated with a monoclonal antibody against P- selectin (MAb PB1.3) or against intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; MAb IA29): P-selectin required for rolling of circulating leukocytes and ICAM-1 for firm adhesive interactions with leukocyte integrins. Results: Under baseline anesthetic conditions (1 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]), venular wall shear rates, an index of the disperse force on marginating leukocytes, in the sevoflurane-treated rats were about two times higher than those with halothane. At 2 MAC, halothane caused a marked arteriolar constriction and decreasing shear rates concurrent with an increasing density of venular leukocyte adhesion. Sevoflurane at 2 MAC induced leukocyte rolling and adhesion, which were attenuated by PB1.3 and 1A29, without alterations in the wall shear rates. Halothane-induced leukocyte adhesion was not prevented by PB1.3 but it was by 1A29. Conclusions: Halothane or sevoflurane anesthesia induces venular leukocyte rolling and adhesion: P-selectin upregulation plays a crucial role in leukocyte rolling and adhesion during sevoflurane anesthesia, whereas low- flow perfusion is likely to evoke ICAM-1-dependent leukocyte adhesion during halothane anesthesia.
- Anesthesia, inhalational
- Blood, leukocyte
- Pharmacology: nitric oxide; P- selectin; intracellular adhesion molecule-1
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine