Life Satisfaction Judgments and Item-Order Effects Across Cultures

Masao Saeki, Shigehiro Oishi, Minha Lee, Takashi Maeno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


We conducted two studies to investigate the item-order effect on life satisfaction judgments. In Study 1, Japanese and American participants completed various life-domain satisfaction items either before or after completing general life satisfaction items. American respondents weighed the best life domains more strongly than Japanese respondents, in particular when they answered domain satisfaction items before making life satisfaction judgments. Overall, Japanese tended to weigh the worst life domains more heavily when making life satisfaction judgments than Americans. We hypothesized that the Japanese patterns of life satisfaction judgments come from the chronic attention to others' perspective. To examine this hypothesis in Study 2, Japanese participants were exposed to either the "other are not watching" or the "other are watching" manipulation. As expected, when Japanese participants were led to believe that "others are not watching," they judged their overall life satisfaction based more heavily on the best life domains (like Americans in Study 1).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)941-951
Number of pages11
JournalSocial Indicators Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Sept


  • Culture
  • Item-order effect
  • Life satisfaction judgments
  • Social judgments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Social Sciences(all)


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