Localized Graphitization on Diamond Surface as a Manifestation of Dopants

Francesca Celine I. Catalan, Le The Anh, Junepyo Oh, Emiko Kazuma, Norihiko Hayazawa, Norihito Ikemiya, Naoki Kamoshida, Yoshitaka Tateyama, Yasuaki Einaga, Yousoo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Doped diamond electrodes have attracted significant attention for decades owing to their excellent physical and electrochemical properties. However, direct experimental observation of dopant effects on the diamond surface has not been available until now. Here, low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy is utilized to investigate the atomic-scale morphology and electronic structures of (100)- and (111)-oriented boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Graphitized domains of a few nanometers are shown to manifest the effects of boron dopants on the BDD surface. Confirmed by first-principles calculations, local density of states measurements reveal that the electronic structure of these features is characterized by in-gap states induced by boron-related lattice deformation. The dopant-related graphitization is uniquely observed in BDD (111), which explains its electrochemical superiority over the (100) facet. These experimental observations provide atomic-scale information about the role of dopants in modulating the conductivity of diamond, as well as, possibly, other functional doped materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2103250
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number42
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Oct 21


  • boron-doped diamond
  • dopant effects
  • graphitization
  • surface morphology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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