Long-term Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Exfoliation Glaucoma or Glaucoma Suspect Status among United States Health Professionals

Akiko Hanyuda, Bernard A. Rosner, Janey L. Wiggs, Kazuno Negishi, Louis R. Pasquale, Jae H. Kang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To assess the association between intakes of total alcohol and individual alcoholic beverages and the incidence of exfoliation glaucoma/glaucoma suspect (XFG/XFGS) status. Design: Prospective cohort study. Participants: A total of 195 408 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study (1980–2018), the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–2018), and the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991–2019) were followed biennially. Eligible participants at each 2-year risk period were ≧ 40 years and free of XFG/XFGS status with available data on diet and ophthalmic examination findings. Methods: Cumulatively averaged total (primary exposure) and individual alcoholic beverage (beer, wine, and liquor) intakes from validated dietary information every 2-4 years. Main Outcome Measures: Confirmed incident XFG/XFGS status using medical records. We used per-eye Cox proportional hazards models, accounting for intereye correlations, to estimate multivariate-adjusted relative risks (MVRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During 6 877 823 eye-years of follow-up, 705 eyes with XFG/XFGS status were documented. Greater total alcohol consumption was associated significantly with higher XFG/XFGS status risk: the MVRR for XFG/XFGS status for cumulatively averaged alcohol consumption of ≧15 g/day or more versus nondrinking was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.17–2.07; P = 0.02 for trend). Long- and short-term alcohol intake was associated significantly with XFG/XFGS status risk, with the strongest associations with cumulatively averaged alcohol intake as of 4 years before diagnosis (MVRR ≥ 15 g/day vs. nondrinking, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.25–2.18; P = 0.002 for trend). Compared with nondrinkers, consuming ≧ 3.6 drinks of beer, wine, or liquor per week was associated with the following MVRRs for XFG/XFGS status: 1.26 (95% CI, 0.89–1.77; P = 0.40 for trend), 1.30 (95% CI, 1.00–1.68; P = 0.15 for trend), and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.15–1.85; P = 0.01 for trend), respectively. We did not observe interactions by age, latitude, residential tier, or intakes of folate or vitamin A (P > 0.40 for interaction); however, the association between alcohol and XFG/XFGS status was suggestively stronger for those without a family history of glaucoma (P = 0.10 for interaction). Conclusions: Long-term alcohol consumption was associated with a higher risk of XFG/XFGS status. Our findings provide further clues regarding the XFG/XFGS etiology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-197
Number of pages11
JournalOphthalmology
Volume130
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Feb

Keywords

  • Alcohol consumption
  • Environmental factors
  • Exfoliation glaucoma
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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