Long-Term Mastication Changed Salivary Metabolomic Profiles

Yoji Saeki, Akane Takenouchi, Etsuyo Otani, Minji Kim, Yumi Aizawa, Yasuko Aita, Atsumi Tomita, Masahiro Sugimoto, Takashi Matsukubo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Saliva is an ideal biofluid for monitoring oral and systemic health. Repeated mastication is a typical physical stimulus that improves salivary flow and oral hygiene. Recent metabolomic studies have shown the potential of salivary metabolomic components for various disease monitoring systems. Here, we evaluated the effect of long-term mastication on salivary metabolomic profiles. Young women with good oral hygiene (20.8 ± 0.3 years, n = 17) participated. They were prohibited from chewing gum during control periods (4 weeks each) and were instructed to chew a piece of gum base seven times a day for 10 min each time during the intervention period. Paired samples of unstimulated whole saliva collected on the last day of the control and intervention period were compared. Liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry successfully quantified 85 metabolites, of which 41 showed significant differences (p < 0.05, Wilcoxon paired test corrected by false discovery rate). Except for a few metabolites, such as citrate, most metabolites showed lower concentrations after the intervention. The pathways related to glycogenic amino acids, such as alanine, arginine, and glutamine, altered considerably. This study suggests that long-term mastication induces unstimulated salivary component-level changes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number660
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jul
Externally publishedYes


  • chewing
  • liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry
  • mastication
  • metabolomic profile
  • saliva

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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