Measuring individual differences in sensitivities to basic emotions in faces

Atsunobu Suzuki, Takahiro Hoshino, Kazuo Shigemasu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


The assessment of individual differences in facial expression recognition is normally required to address two major issues: (1) high agreement level (ceiling effect) and (2) differential difficulty levels across emotions. We propose a new assessment method designed to quantify individual differences in the recognition of the six basic emotions, 'sensitivities to basic emotions in faces.' We attempted to address the two major assessment issues by using morphing techniques and item response theory (IRT). We used morphing to create intermediate, mixed facial expression stimuli with various levels of recognition difficulty. Applying IRT enabled us to estimate the individual latent trait levels underlying the recognition of respective emotions (sensitivity scores), unbiased by stimulus properties that constitute difficulty. In a series of two experiments we demonstrated that the sensitivity scores successfully addressed the two major assessment issues and their concomitant individual variability. Intriguingly, correlational analyses of the sensitivity scores to different emotions produced orthogonality between happy and non-happy emotion recognition. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the independence of happiness recognition, unaffected by stimulus difficulty.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)327-353
Number of pages27
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Apr
Externally publishedYes


  • Basic emotions
  • Facial expression recognition
  • Independence of happiness recognition
  • Individual differences
  • Item response theory (IRT)
  • Morphing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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