Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Pick-Up Service Considering Differentiated Supply and Demand: A Case in Hangzhou, China

Liyun Lin, Haoying Han, Wanglin Yan, Shun Nakayama, Xianfan Shu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


In recent years, customer pick-up at collection and delivery points has become a popular alternative to traditional home delivery, which is under great pressure. However, current service of pick-up facilities has seldom been geographically evaluated despite its general uneven distribution and diverse needs. In this paper, in order to interpret the differentiation in customers' service demands toward reception alternatives and in facilities' service excludability in different built environments, a two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method is improved to measure customers' spatial accessibility to pick-up facilities, providing a methodology to evaluate the match relation between the differentiated supply and demand of pick-up service. A case study of widespread automated parcel stations (APSs) is conducted in Hangzhou, China and correlative factors to residents' accessibility are discussed. From the results, residents' accessibility to pick-up service shows significant spatial unevenness and social inequity in the study area, which is found to correlate most to residences' maintenance management. As well-managed, gated communities generally hold effective access to exclusive services, most open communities and self-built, single houses are in need of improvement due to inadequate service stemming from a high aging rate, lack of property management, and low service availability of nonexclusive facilities in open areas.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3448
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Demand differentiation
  • Gated communities
  • Last-mile delivery
  • Service excludability
  • Spatial accessibility
  • Two-step floating catchment area method

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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