Modeling Transition Metals in East Asia and Japan and Its Emission Sources

Mizuo Kajino, Hiroyuki Hagino, Yuji Fujitani, Tazuko Morikawa, Tetsuo Fukui, Kazunari Onishi, Tomoaki Okuda, Tomoki Kajikawa, Yasuhito Igarashi

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17 Citations (Scopus)


Emission inventories of anthropogenic transition metals, which contribute to aerosol oxidative potential (OP), in Asia (Δx = 0.25°, monthly, 2000–2008) and Japan (Δx = 2 km, hourly, mainly 2012) were developed, based on bottom-up inventories of particulate matters and metal profiles in a speciation database for particulate matters. The new inventories are named Transition Metal Inventory (TMI)-Asia v1.0 and TMI-Japan v1.0, respectively. It includes 10 transition metals in PM2.5 and PM10, which contributed to OP based on reagent experiments, namely, Cu, Mn, Co, V, Ni, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The contributions of sectors in the transition metals emission in Japan were also investigated. Road brakes and iron-steel industry are primary sources, followed by other metal industry, navigation, incineration, power plants, and railway. In order to validate the emission inventory, eight elements such as Cu, Mn, V, Ni, Pb, Fe, Zn, and Cr in anthropogenic dust and those in mineral dust were simulated over East Asia and Japan with Δx = 30 km and Δx = 5 km domains, respectively, and compared against the nation-wide seasonal observations of PM2.5 elements in Japan and the long-term continuous observations of total suspended particles (TSPs) at Yonago, Japan in 2013. Most of the simulated elements generally agreed with the observations, while Cu and Pb were significantly overestimated. This is the first comprehensive study on the development and evaluation of emission inventory of OP active elements, but further improvement is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2020GH000259
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Sept 1


  • East Asia
  • Japan
  • emission inventory
  • numerical modeling
  • oxidative potential
  • transition metals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Epidemiology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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