Modified Socratic Method (planned and executed by Takada) for medical education: Grade II Acute Cholecystitis of Tokyo Guidelines 2018 as an example case

Tadahiro Takada, Shuji Isaji, Masahiro Yoshida, Akihiko Horiguchi, Hisami Ando, Shuichi Miyakawa, Seiki Kiriyama, Harumi Gomi, Shuntaro Mukai, Ryota Higuchi, Yuta Abe, Kohji Okamoto, Kenji Suzuki, Naoyuki Toyota, Shutaro Hori, Yuki Homma, Hiroyuki Kato, Akiko Umezawa, Jiro Hata, Dai InoueMotoyuki Kobayashi, Toshio Tsuyuguchi, Hirotoshi Maruo, Yusuke Kumamoto, Yukio Asano, Yuka Kondo, Satoshi Arakawa, Koji Asai, Yasuhisa Mori, Yukiko Nagamachi, Shugo Mizuno, Shintaro Yagi, Tetsuji Ohyama, Takeyuki Misawa, Keiji Sano, Takao Itoi, Nobuhiko Taniai, Michiaki Unno, Masakazu Yamamoto, Toshihiko Mayumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Socratic method, which is an educational method to promote critical thinking through a dialogue, has never been practiced in a large number of people at the academic societies. Methods: Modified Socratic method was performed for the first time as an educational seminar using an example case of moderate acute cholecystitis based on the evidence described in Tokyo Guidelines 2018. We adopted a method that Takada had been modifying for many years: the instructor first knows the degree of recognition of the audience, then the instructor gives a lecture in an easy-to-understand manner and receives questions from the audience, followed by repeated questions and answers toward a common recognition. Results: Using slides, video, and an answer pad, 281 participants including the audience, instructors and moderators came together to repeatedly ask and answer questions in the five sessions related to the case scenario. The recognition rate of the topic of Critical View of Safety increased significantly before vs after this method (53.0% vs 90.3%). The seminar had been successfully performed by receiving a lot of praise from the participants. Conclusion: This educational method is considered to be adopted by many academic societies in the future as an effective educational method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)505-520
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May


  • Socratic method
  • Tokyo Guidelines
  • active learning
  • acute cholecystitis
  • medical education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Hepatology


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