Modulation of cardiac growth and development by HOP, an unusual homeodomain protein

Chong Hyun Shin, Zhi Ping Liu, Robert Passier, Chun Li Zhang, Da Zhi Wang, Thomas M. Harris, Hiroyuki Yamagishi, James A. Richardson, Geoffrey Childs, Eric N. Olson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

209 Citations (Scopus)


We have discovered an unusual homeodomain protein, called HOP, which is comprised simply of a homeodomain. HOP is highly expressed in the developing heart where its expression is dependent on the cardiac-restricted homeodomain protein Nkx2.5. HOP does not bind DNA and acts as an antagonist of serum response factor (SRF), which regulates the opposing processes of proliferation and myogenesis. Mice homozygous for a HOP null allele segregate into two phenotypic classes characterized by an excess or deficiency of cardiac myocytes. We propose that HOP modulates SRF activity during heart development; its absence results in an imbalance between cardiomyocyte proliferation and differentiation with consequent abnormalities in cardiac morphogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)725-735
Number of pages11
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Sept 20
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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