Multi-stack silicon-direct wafer bonding for 3D MEMS manufacturing

N. Miki, X. Zhang, R. Khanna, A. A. Ayón, D. Ward, S. M. Spearing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)


Multi-stack wafer bonding is one of the most promising fabrication techniques for creating three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. However, there are several bonding issues that have to be faced and overcome to build multilayered structures successfully. Among these are: (1) chemical residues on surfaces to be bonded originating from the fabrication processes prior to bonding; (2) increased stiffness due to multiple bonded wafers and/or thick wafers; (3) bonding tool effects; (4) defect propagation to other wafer-levels after high-temperature annealing cycles. The problems and the solutions presented here are readily applicable to any microelectromechanical systems project involving the fabrication of multi-stack structures of two or more wafers containing intricate geometries and large etched areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)194-201
Number of pages8
JournalSensors and Actuators, A: Physical
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Jan 15
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D structure
  • Multi-stack wafer bonding
  • Silicon-direct bonding
  • Wafer bonding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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