Multiple Factors Causing Myopia and the Possible Treatments: A Mini Review

Ari Shinojima, Kazuno Negishi, Kazuo Tsubota, Toshihide Kurihara

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The myopia epidemic has become a global public health problem. Although myopia is progressing worldwide, the recent coronavirus infections 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has spurred myopia progression. The current evidence-based treatments for humans are atropine eye drops, optical treatment with defocus, use of orthokeratology, extending proximity working distance, pausing from near work every half hour and increased time outside the home. Studies on myopia using animal models have been conducted for more than 40 years. In recent years, new mechanisms of myopia suppression have been revealed from animal experiments such as inflammation control, intraocular pressure control, light control, and the activity of early growth response protein 1 control. This mini-review provides a summary of the scientific evidence currently available on the control of myopia, and the possible treatments mitigating myopia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number897600
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May 10


  • Asian
  • anthropometrics
  • axial length (AL)
  • myopia
  • treatments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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