Neutron transmutation doping of isotopically engineered Ge

K. M. Itoh, E. E. Haller, W. L. Hansen, J. W. Beeman, J. W. Farmer, A. Rudnev, A. Tikhomirov, V. I. Ozhogin

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37 Citations (Scopus)


We report a novel approach for obtaining precise control of both p- and n-type dopant concentrations in bulk Ge single crystals. High-purity Ge single crystals of controlled 74Ge/70Ge isotope composition ratios were grown and subsequently doped by the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique. The resulting net-impurity concentrations and the compensation ratios were precisely determined by the thermal neutron fluence and the [ 74Ge]/[70Ge] ratios of the starting Ge materials, respectively. Application of NTD to seven crystals with 0≤[ 74Ge]/[70Ge]≤4.34 lead to p-type Ge:Ga,As with compensation ratios in the range 0-0.76. The ability to grow crystals with accurately controlled Ge isotope mixtures allows us to obtain ratios anywhere between 0 and 1 for both p- and n-type doping.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2121-2123
Number of pages3
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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