New isolated bovine colon model dedicated to colonic ESD hands-on training: development and first evaluation

Mathieu Pioche, Jérôme Rivory, Guillermo Aguero-Garcete, Olivier Guillaud, Marc O’Brien, Cyril Lafon, Nicolas Reversat, Toshio Uraoka, Naohisa Yahagi, Thierry Ponchon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: ESD is the reference method to achieve en bloc resections for large digestive lesions. Nevertheless, it is a difficult and risky technique. Animal models exist to teach the initial skills, particularly in Japan, where pigs’ stomachs are dedicated models to gastric ESD. In Europe, we have to develop different strategies of teaching with dedicated colon models. A pig colon is a good model but thinner and narrower than a human’s. In this present work, we evaluated a bovine colon model to perform rectal ESD in retroflexion. Methods: First, we prepared six bowels to precise the preparation protocol. Then, two endoscopists unexperienced in ESD performed 64 procedures on eight models. Learning curves and factors of variation were studied. Results: A precise protocol to prepare the colon was defined. The two students achieved en bloc resection in 89.1 % of cases with a rate of 6.2 % of perforations. A large heterogeneity appeared between the speed and the success rate depending mainly on the age of the animal bowel. Using calf colons, the failure rates were higher (p = 0.002) and the speed was lower (p < 0.001) than for adult bovine ones. A learning curve appeared with, respectively, 0.49 and 0.59 cm2/min throughout the study. No significant difference appeared between measured and calculated specimen areas. Discussion: Bovine colon is a new model to teach ESD in colorectal conditions. The bovine age is important to homogenize the model. A learning curve existed with a time procedure decreasing throughout the study. Further studies are needed to evaluate the precise learning curve with more students. Conclusion: A bovine colon model is a suitable model to teach colorectal ESD. Nevertheless, an adult bovine colon model is more homogeneous than a calf one.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3209-3215
Number of pages7
JournalSurgical endoscopy
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Nov 1


  • Animal model
  • Colon neoplasia
  • ESD
  • Training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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