New large aperture photodetectors for water Cherenkov detectors

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4 Citations (Scopus)


New 50cm-diameter photo-detectors based on three different types of amplification systems were developed for future large water Cherenkov detectors. The R12860 PMT, based on a box-and-line dynode, was developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (Hamamatsu). Its detection efficiency is twice that of a conventional 50 cm PMT, while also improving by a factor two the charge and timing resolutions and being able to resist pressures up to 1.25MPa. A 50 cm hybrid photo-detector (HPD) using an avalanche diode (Hamamatsu, R12850) realized further improvement on the resolutions by the successful development of a preamplifier. It requires higher bias voltage (eight kilovolts), which lead to the development of a built-in power supply or water tight connector. Finally, a 50-cm micro-channel plate PMT (GDB-6203) was developed for water Cherenkov detectors by North Night Vision Technology Co., LTD in China. It is based on the GDB-6201 model, with improved timing performances. The charge resolutions for single photoelectron of the R12860, R12850 and GDB-6203 PMTs were evaluated to be 35%, 15%, and 40% (standard deviation), while the transit time spreads measured for single photoelectrons at a fixed threshold were 4.1, 3.6 and 4.3 nsec (FWHM) respectively. We obtained operational waterproof designs for all those photodetectors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number162993
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Apr 1
Externally publishedYes


  • Neutrino
  • Photodetector
  • Water Cherenkov detector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation


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