New Perspectives on Dry Eye Definition and Diagnosis: A Consensus Report by the Asia Dry Eye Society

Kazuo Tsubota, Norihiko Yokoi, Jun Shimazaki, Hitoshi Watanabe, Murat Dogru, Masakazu Yamada, Shigeru Kinoshita, Hyo Myung Kim, Hung Won Tchah, Joon Young Hyon, Kyung Chul Yoon, Kyoung Yul Seo, Xuguang Sun, Wei Chen, Lingyi Liang, Mingwu Li, Zuguo Liu, Yingping Deng, Jing Hong, Ying JieYing Li, Hong Qi, Hua Wang, Xiaoming Yan, Wenzhao Yang, Yufeng Ye, Jin Yuan, Hong Zhang, Hui Zhan, Mingchang Zhang, Shaozhen Zhao, Chul Young Choi, Eui Sang Chung, Hyun Seung Kim, Mee Kum Kim, Myoung-Joon, Tae Im Kim, Do Hyung Lee, Hyung Keun Lee, Jong Suk Song, Shiro Amano, Reiko Arita, Yuichi Hori, Tetsuya Kawakita, Motoko Kawashima, Shizuka Koh, Kohji Nishida, Yoko Ogawa, Masahiko Yamaguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

389 Citations (Scopus)


For the last 20 years, a great amount of evidence has accumulated through epidemiological studies that most of the dry eye disease encountered in daily life, especially in video display terminal (VDT) workers, involves short tear film breakup time (TFBUT) type dry eye, a category characterized by severe symptoms but minimal clinical signs other than short TFBUT. An unstable tear film also affects the visual function, possibly due to the increase of higher order aberrations. Based on the change in the understanding of the types, symptoms, and signs of dry eye disease, the Asia Dry Eye Society agreed to the following definition of dry eye: “Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by unstable tear film causing a variety of symptoms and/or visual impairment, potentially accompanied by ocular surface damage.” The definition stresses instability of the tear film as well as the importance of visual impairment, highlighting an essential role for TFBUT assessment. This paper discusses the concept of Tear Film Oriented Therapy (TFOT), which evolved from the definition of dry eye, emphasizing the importance of a stable tear film.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-76
Number of pages12
JournalOcular Surface
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1


  • consensus
  • definition of dry eye
  • diagnosis of dry eye
  • dry eye
  • tear film breakup time
  • tear film oriented therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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