NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors

Michael H. Shaw, Thornik Reimer, Yun Gi Kim, Gabriel Nuñez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

245 Citations (Scopus)


The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing) family of proteins has been demonstrated to function as regulators of innate immune response against microbial pathogens. Stimulation of NOD1 and NOD2, two prototypic NLRs, results in the activation of MAPK and NF-κB. On the other hand, a different set of NLRs induces caspase-1 activation through the assembly of an inflammasome. This review discusses recent findings regarding the signaling pathways utilized by NLR proteins in the control of caspase-1 and NF-κB activation, as well as the nonredundant role of NLRs in pathogen clearance. The review also covers advances regarding the cellular localization of these proteins and the implications this may have on pathogen sensing and signal transduction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-382
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Immunology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Aug
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


Dive into the research topics of 'NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this