The non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) derived from abdominal surface electrodes has been widely used for fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring to assess fetal well-being. However, the accuracy of FECG-based FHR estimation heavily depends on the quality of FECG signal itself, which can generally be affected by several interference sources such as maternal heart activities and fetal movements. Hence, FECG signal quality assessment (SQA) is an essential task to improve the accuracy of FHR estimation by removing or interpolating low-quality FECG signals. In recent research, various SQA methods based on supervised learning have been proposed. Although these methods could perform accurate SQA, they require large labeled datasets. Nevertheless, the labeled datasets for the FECG SQA are very limited. In this paper, to address this limitation, we propose an unsupervised learning-based SQA method for identifying high and low-quality FECG signal segments. Specifically, a fully convolutional network (FCN)-based autoencoder (AE) is trained for reconstructing a spectrogram derived from FECG. An AE-based feature related to reconstruction error is then calculated to identify high and low-quality FECG segments. In addition, entropy-based features, statistical features, and ECG signal quality indices (SQIs) are also extracted. The high and low-quality segments are identified by feeding the extracted features into self-organizing map (SOM). The experimental results showed that our proposal achieved an accuracy of 98% in high and low-quality signal classification.