Paper-based analytical device for zinc ion quantification in water samples with power-free analyte concentration

Hiroko Kudo, Kentaro Yamada, Daiki Watanabe, Koji Suzuki, Daniel Citterio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Insufficient sensitivity is a general issue of colorimetric paper-based analytical devices (PADs) for trace analyte detection, such as metal ions, in environmental water. This paper demonstrates the colorimetric detection of zinc ions (Zn2+) on a paper-based analytical device with an integrated analyte concentration system. Concentration of Zn2+ ions from an enlarged sample volume (1 mL) has been achieved with the aid of a colorimetric Zn2+ indicator (Zincon) electrostatically immobilized onto a filter paper substrate in combination with highly water-absorbent materials. Analyte concentration as well as sample pretreatment, including pH adjustment and interferent masking, has been elaborated. The resulting device enables colorimetric quantification of Zn2+ in environmental water samples (tap water, river water) from a single sample application. The achieved detection limit of 0.53 μM is a significant improvement over that of a commercial colorimetric Zn2+ test paper (9.7 μM), demonstrating the efficiency of the developed analyte concentration system not requiring any equipment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number127
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Apr 18


  • 3D-printing
  • Analyte enrichment
  • Colorimetry
  • Inkjet printing
  • PAD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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