Patterns of Movement Performance among Japanese Children and Effects of Parenting Practices: Latent class analysis

Zhu Zhu, Cunyoen Kim, Dandan Jiao, Xiang Li, Ammara Ajmal, Munenori Matsumoto, Yuko Sawada, Toshiyuki Kasai, Taeko Watanabe, Etsuko Tomisaki, Emiko Tanaka, Sumio Ito, Rika Okumura, Tokie Anme

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: This study aimed to examine the long-term effects of parenting practice during preschool years on children’s movement performance in primary school. Methods: This three-year longitudinal study included 225 children aged 3–6-years-old. Parents reported baseline parenting practice and evaluated children’s movement performance three years later. Latent class analysis was used to explore latent classes of movement performance. A post hoc test was used to identify the characteristics of different patterns. Finally, adjusted multinomial logistic regression models were used to test the influence of parenting practice on identified patterns of movement performance. Results: Children in this study were grouped into three movement performance patterns, labelled as ‘least difficulties’ (n = 131, 58.2%), ‘low back pain’ (n = 68, 30.2%) and ‘most difficulties’ (n = 26, 11.6%). After controlling for age, gender, having siblings or not, family structure, standardised body mass index, sleep condition and dietary habits, the researchers found that if parents played games with children frequently, the children would have a 0.287 times lower probability of being in the ‘low back pain’ class (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.105–0.783). In addition, if parents take children to meet peers of a similar age frequently, children would have a 0.339 times lower probability of being in ‘most difficulties’ class (95% CI: 0.139–0.825). Conclusion: Primary healthcare providers should pay careful attention to children with movement difficulties. The study provides longitudinal evidence to support the applicability of positive parenting practice in early childhood to prevent children’s movement difficulties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-31
Number of pages10
JournalSultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Feb


  • Child
  • Japan
  • Latent Class Analysis
  • Longitudinal Study
  • Movement
  • Parenting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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