Pelvis-toe distance: 3-dimensional gait characteristics of functional limb shortening in hemiparetic stroke

Koshiro Haruyama, Michiyuki Kawakami, Kohsuke Okada, Kohei Okuyama, Keita Tsuzuki, Meigen Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


We aimed to investigate whether a newly defined distance in the lower limb can capture the characteristics of hemiplegic gait compared to healthy controls. Three-dimensional gait analyses were performed on 42 patients with chronic stroke and 10 age-matched controls. Pelvis-toe distance (PTD) was calculated as the absolute distance between an anterior superior iliac spine marker and a toe marker during gait normalized by PTD in the bipedal stance. The shortening peak during the swing phase was then quantified as PTDmin. The sagittal clearance angle, the frontal compensatory angle, gait speed, and the observational gait scale were also collected. PTDmin in the stroke group showed less shortening on the affected side and excessive shortening on the non-affected side compared to controls. PTDmin on the affected side correlated negatively with the sagittal clearance peak angle and positively with the frontal compensatory peak angle in the stroke group. PTDmin in stroke patients showed moderate to high correlations with gait speed and observational gait scale. PTDmin adequately reflected gait quality without being affected by apparent improvements due to frontal compensatory patterns. Our results showed that various impairments and compensations were included in the inability to shorten PTD, which can provide new perspectives on gait rehabilitation in stroke patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5417
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Aug 2


  • Gait analysis
  • Gait disorders
  • Hemiplegia
  • Lower extremity
  • Neurologic
  • Stroke rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Pelvis-toe distance: 3-dimensional gait characteristics of functional limb shortening in hemiparetic stroke'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this