Perception of feeling cold in the bedroom and sleep quality

Odgerel Chimed-Ochir, Shintaro Ando, Shuzo Murakami, Tatsuhiko Kubo, Tomohiro Ishimaru, Yoshihisa Fujino, Toshiharu Ikaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Sleep disorders are drawing the attention of both medical and public health concern worldwide. In Japan, research suggests that one fifth of adults do not receive appropriate sleep and 40% of adults sleep less than 6 hours a day, and sleep rates are decreasing further year by year. Many studies show that cold indoor environments negatively affect sleep comfort and quality. Whereas these studies have focused on the effects of low bedroom temperature, few studies have focused on the effect of perception of coldness. Indoor temperature is typically much lower in Japan than in other countries. Therefore, the current study aimed to identify the effect of perception of bedroom coldness on sleep quality among Japanese adults. After controlling for covariates of age, presence of current disease and pain, smoking and consumption of alcohol (Model 1), participants who sometimes, often or always felt cold in the bedroom exhibited 0.57 (95% CI=0.32–0.83, p=<.0001), 1.08 (95% CI=0.82–1.35, p<.0001) or 2.25 (95% CI=1.83–2.67, p<.0001) higher PSQI scores compared to the group which didn’t feel cold in bedroom. Our findings suggest keeping the bedroom thermal environment above a minimum limit as recommended by the World Health Organization or other organization during colder, winter nights when feeling cold during sleep. Additional deficiencies in the housing infrastructure, air quality issues due to the use of a heater, and micro bed environment need to be holistically addressed. Sleep quality can be improved by certain level via providing thermally comfortable sleeping environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)705-714
Number of pages10
JournalNagoya Journal of Medical Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • cold bedroom
  • community health
  • housing
  • indoor thermal environment
  • sleep quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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