Performance of Area under the Concentration-Time Curve Estimations of Vancomycin with Limited Sampling by a Newly Developed Web Application

Kazutaka Oda, Yumi Hashiguchi, Toshimi Kimura, Yasuhiro Tsuji, Kensuke Shoji, Yoshiko Takahashi, Kazuaki Matsumoto, Hideki Kawamura, Hideyuki Saito, Yoshio Takesue

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Therapeutic drug monitoring guided by the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC-guided TDM) is recommended for vancomycin. However, validated efficient software remains elusive to popularize AUC-guided TDM in Japan. The aim of this study was to validate a newly developed web application, PAT, for AUC estimation. Methods: PAT was developed on the R ver. 3.6.2 platform for use with mobile phones and personal computers. AUC estimated by PAT (AUCPAT) was evaluated against the reference AUC (AUCREF) calculated with the log-linear trapezoidal rule using eight measured concentrations, or against AUC (AUCBM-P) calculated using an evaluated available software with clinical data. Results: Investigating the best sampling points with limited sampling, PAT produced the least bias using two concentrations at 1 h and 11 h after the end of infusion (slope 1.18, intercept −15.57, median AUCPAT/AUCREF 0.93 [range 0.81–1.24]), where only one estimation (6%) was out of the predetermined acceptable range of 0.8–1.2. Employment of only a trough concentration was more biased (AUCPAT/AUCREF range 0.73–1.30 for 11 h, AUCPAT/AUCREF range 0.62–1.40 for 23 h). In comparison with the evaluated software, AUCPAT was not biased against the AUCBM-P (slope 1.04, intercept −15.80, median AUCPAT/AUCBM-P 1.00 [range 0.86–1.10]). Conclusions: The new application using two concentrations was appropriately validated and might be efficient in popularizing the AUC-guided TDM of vancomycin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)637-646
Number of pages10
JournalPharmaceutical research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr


  • area under the concentration-time curve
  • bayesian
  • software
  • therapeutic drug monitoring
  • vancomycin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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