Pethidine dose and female sex as risk factors for nausea after esophagogastroduodenoscopy

Toshihiro Nishizawa, Hidekazu Suzuki, Masahide Arita, Yosuke Kataoka, Kazushi Fukagawa, Daisuke Ohki, Keisuke Hata, Toshio Uraoka, Takanori Kanai, Naohisa Yahagi, Osamu Toyoshima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Nausea and vomiting after esophagogastroduodenoscopy have not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for post-endoscopic nausea. We performed a case-control study at the Toyoshima Endoscopy Clinic. Eighteen patients with post-endoscopic nausea and 190 controls without post-endoscopic nausea were analyzed. We conducted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses with respect to patient age; sex; body height; body weight; the use of psychotropic drugs as baseline medications; and the dosing amounts of midazolam, pethidine, flumazenil and naloxone. On univariate analysis, post-endoscopic nausea was significantly related with patient age (odds ratio = 0.946); female sex (odds ratio = 10.85); body weight (odds ratio = 0.975); and the dose per kg body weight of pethidine (odds ratio = 53.03), naloxone (odds ratio = 1.676), and flumazenil (odds ratio = 1.26). On multivariate analysis, the dose per kg body weight of pethidine (odds ratio = 21.67, p = 0.004) and female sex (odds ratio = 13.12, p = 0.047) were the factors independently associated with post-endoscopic nausea. The prevalence of nausea after esophagogastroduodenoscopy was 0.49% (18/3, 654). In conclusion, post-endoscopic nausea was associated with the dose of pethidine and female sex.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)230-232
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Nov


  • Endoscopy
  • Nausea
  • Pethidine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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