Precision tomography of a three-qubit donor quantum processor in silicon

Mateusz T. Mądzik, Serwan Asaad, Akram Youssry, Benjamin Joecker, Kenneth M. Rudinger, Erik Nielsen, Kevin C. Young, Timothy J. Proctor, Andrew D. Baczewski, Arne Laucht, Vivien Schmitt, Fay E. Hudson, Kohei M. Itoh, Alexander M. Jakob, Brett C. Johnson, David N. Jamieson, Andrew S. Dzurak, Christopher Ferrie, Robin Blume-Kohout, Andrea Morello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

116 Citations (Scopus)


Nuclear spins were among the first physical platforms to be considered for quantum information processing1,2, because of their exceptional quantum coherence3 and atomic-scale footprint. However, their full potential for quantum computing has not yet been realized, owing to the lack of methods with which to link nuclear qubits within a scalable device combined with multi-qubit operations with sufficient fidelity to sustain fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we demonstrate universal quantum logic operations using a pair of ion-implanted 31P donor nuclei in a silicon nanoelectronic device. A nuclear two-qubit controlled-Z gate is obtained by imparting a geometric phase to a shared electron spin4, and used to prepare entangled Bell states with fidelities up to 94.2(2.7)%. The quantum operations are precisely characterized using gate set tomography (GST)5, yielding one-qubit average gate fidelities up to 99.95(2)%, two-qubit average gate fidelity of 99.37(11)% and two-qubit preparation/measurement fidelities of 98.95(4)%. These three metrics indicate that nuclear spins in silicon are approaching the performance demanded in fault-tolerant quantum processors6. We then demonstrate entanglement between the two nuclei and the shared electron by producing a Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger three-qubit state with 92.5(1.0)% fidelity. Because electron spin qubits in semiconductors can be further coupled to other electrons7–9 or physically shuttled across different locations10,11, these results establish a viable route for scalable quantum information processing using donor nuclear and electron spins.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)348-353
Number of pages6
Issue number7893
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jan 20

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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