Interventions for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), diagnosed in early pregnancy, have been a topic of controversy. This study aimed to elucidate factors that predict patients with GDM diagnosed before 24 gestational weeks (early GDM: E-GDM) who require insulin therapy later during pregnancy. Furthermore, we identified patients whose impaired glucose tolerance should be strictly controlled from early gestation onward. Women diagnosed with GDM were categorized based on the gestational age at diagnosis into E-GDM (n = 388) or late GDM (L-GDM, diagnosed after 24 weeks, n = 340) groups. Clinical features were compared between the groups, and the predictors for insulin therapy was evaluated in the E-GDM group. There were no significant between-group differences in terms of perinatal outcomes (e.g., gestational weeks at delivery, fetal growth, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy), with the exception of the Apgar score at 5 min. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the frequency of insulin therapy during pregnancy between the two groups. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2, a family history of diabetes, and higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 1 h-plasma glucose (PG), and 2 h-PG values increased insulin therapy risk during pregnancy in the E-GDM group. Furthermore, since E-GDM patients with abnormal levels of FPG, as well as 1 h-PG or 2 h-PG, and those with pre-pregnancy BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and a family history of diabetes had a higher risk of later insulin therapy during pregnancy, they may require more careful follow-up in the perinatal period.
- Gestational diabetes
- Oral glucose tolerance test
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism