Premarketing Population Pharmacokinetic Study of Levofloxacin in Normal Subjects and Patients with Infectious Diseases

Yusuke Tanigawara, Katsuhiko Okumura, Hisashi Nomura, Noriko Kagimoto, Ryohei Hori

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47 Citations (Scopus)


The population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin (LVFX), the l-enantiomer of ofloxacin, were studied in 522 subjects, including normal subjects and patients with infectious diseases. Altogether, 1572 LVFX serum concentrations were obtained following a single oral administration during clinical trials. The influences of renal function, age, meals and concurrent durg administration on the pharmacokinetic parameters of LVFX were examined by the likelihood ratio test using a nonlinear mixed-effect model (NONMEM). In patients with renal insufficiency, the total body clearance (CL) of LVFX was related to creatinine clearance (Ccr) and body weight (WT), as expressed by CL=0.0836 Ccr+0.013 WT. The CL with normal renal function was 0.178 (l/h/kg). The apparent volume of distribution (Vd) was calculated to be 1.46 (l/kg). The elderly subjects, aged 65 years old or over, exhibited, on average, a 32% reduction in CL and 6% greater Vd. LVFX was rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, but the concurrent administration of antacids (magnesium, aluminum, etc.) decreased the bioavailability of LVFX by 15-52%. The recommended dose of LVFX was decided on the basis of current pharmacokinetic information and the minimum inhibitory concentrations. Population pharmacokinetic parameters are also useful for the individualization of a dosage regimen by means of the Bayesian forecasting method.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-320
Number of pages6
JournalBiological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • clinical trial
  • dosage regimen
  • levofloxacin
  • pharmacokinetic screen
  • population pharmacokinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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