Prevalence of dry eye disease and its risk factors in visual display terminal users: The Osaka study

Miki Uchino, Norihiko Yokoi, Yuichi Uchino, Murat Dogru, Motoko Kawashima, Aoi Komuro, Yukiko Sonomura, Hiroaki Kato, Shigeru Kinoshita, Debra A. Schaumberg, Kazuo Tsubota

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275 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose To investigate tear function and prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) in visual display terminal (VDT) users. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods Six hundred and seventy-two young and middle-aged Japanese office workers who used VDT completed questionnaires and underwent dry eye testing. We estimated the prevalence of DED using logistic regression analysis to examine associations between DED and possible risk factors. The ocular surface feature, prevalence of DED, and risk factors were evaluated. Results Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%, mean age: 43.3 ± 9.1 years) completed the questionnaire. The percentage of women with a composite outcome of definite DED or probable DED was 76.5%, which was higher than that among men (60.2%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-3.10, P =.002). Workers over 30 years of age had a higher risk of DED (OR = 2.22; 95% CI, 1.06-4.66), as did workers using a VDT >8 hours per day (OR = 1.94; 95% CI, 1.22-3.09). Average Schirmer value was 18.7 ± 11.7 mm and tear break-up time (TBUT) was 4.0 ± 2.5 seconds (78.6% of study participants had TBUT ≤5 seconds). Conclusions DED is prevalent among young to middle-aged Japanese VDT users. Ophthalmic findings revealed short TBUT and corneal staining accompanied by normal Schirmer test values. Increased risk for DED was noted for women aged over 30 years and prolonged VDT use. Measures to modify the adverse impact of VDT use on the ocular surface may provide a positive impact on public health and quality of life for office workers using VDTs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)759-766.e1
JournalAmerican Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Oct
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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