"Pulse" treatment with high-dose angiotensin blocker reverses renal arteriolar hypertrophy and regresses hypertension

Kimiko Ishiguro, Kaori Hayashi, Hiroyuki Sasamura, Yusuke Sakamaki, Hiroshi Itoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


One ultimate goal of hypertension therapy is to cause permanent reversal ("regression") of already established hypertension. Our aim was to examine whether high-dose "pulse" treatment with a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor could cause regression of established hypertension and to link this action to reversal of arteriolar hypertrophy and changes in vascular matrix metalloproteinase activities. First, 16-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (n=60) were pulse treated for 2 weeks with high-dose angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril), angiotensin receptor blocker (candesartan), calcium channel blocker (nifedipine), or vasodilator (hydralazine) with or without salt restriction, and the long-term effects on blood pressure were examined. Second, spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with angiotensin receptor blocker or calcium channel blocker, and the effects on renal gene expressions, arteriolar structure, and vascular matrix metalloproteinase were compared. Treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with different antihypertensive agents caused apparently similar reductions in blood pressure during the course of the pulse treatment, within the limitations of the tail-cuff method. After cessation of medications, blood pressure in the rats treated with renin-angiotensin system inhibitor remained reduced by >30 to 40 mm Hg for 4 months. No such effect was seen with calcium channel blocker or vasodilator. The 2-week angiotensin receptor blocker treatment induced a marked reversal of the arteriolar hypertrophy specifically in the small (30 to 100 μm) renal arterioles, together with increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-13. In conclusion, transient high-dose pulse treatment with angiotensin receptor blocker caused changes in vascular matrix metalloproteinase activity, specific reversal of renal arteriolar hypertrophy, and regression of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-89
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009 Jan


  • Angiotensin receptor blocker
  • Calcium channel blocker
  • MMP
  • Regression
  • Renal arteriolar hypertrophy
  • Spontaneously hypertensive rat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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