Background and objectives Vaccination status becomes more equitable when interventions are carried out to eliminate poverty or to improve levels in maternal education. Low-income countries need to identify interventions that would have a more immediate and equitable effect. The present study aimed to identify rapidly modifiable factors associated with full vaccination status among children in Niamey, Niger. Methods A cross-sectional, random cluster household survey was conducted in Niamey's five health districts. Data on vaccination coverage and socioeconomic household characteristics were collected. Logistic regression analysis was conducted with data on 445 mothers and their children aged 12-23 months. Results Of 445 children, 38% were fully vaccinated. Mothers who were satisfied with their health worker's attitude and had correct vaccination calendar knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.05-13.82) were more likely to have fully vaccinated children. Mothers who had completed secondary school (aOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.17- 3.55) were also associated with having fully vaccinated children. Conclusions A higher rate of full vaccination among children could be achieved by relatively short-term modifiable factors. These modifiable factors are mothers' satisfaction with health workers' attitudes and knowledge of the vaccination calendar. Maternal satisfaction with health workers' attitudes could be improved through better interpersonal communication between health workers and mothers. Specifically, mothers should be given specific information on time intervals between appointments. Strengthened communication interventions may be effective in improving both the acceptability of health services and low vaccination coverage.
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