Reasoning bias for the recall of one's own beliefs in a Smarties task for adults

Yukio Maehara, Satoshi Umeda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


While many studies in the theory of mind (ToM) literature have investigated how we understand others' mental states, few have explored the mechanism by which we reflect on our own mental states. This study examined how adults reflect on their own and others' mental states within the same ToM task. To do so, we modified the Smarties task, one of the traditional ToM tasks for children. The results showed that adult participants were biased by outcome knowledge when recalling their false belief and that the participants who overestimated their false belief also overestimated the mental states of a naive other. These results were analogous to young children's failure in the Smarties task. Considering the current findings, we discuss possible cognitive processes that are common across children and adults when reflecting on their own mental states and the mental states of others.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)292-301
Number of pages10
JournalJapanese Psychological Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Jul


  • Adults
  • Memory
  • Smarties task
  • Theory of mind

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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