Reduced versus maximum tolerated methotrexate dose concomitant with adalimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (MIRACLE): a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial

MIRACLE study collaborators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Efficacy of combination therapy with methotrexate and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is well established in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis; however, the optimal dose of methotrexate to administer with a tumour necrosis factor inhibitor remains unclear. We aimed to clarify the efficacy and safety of adalimumab combined with reduced methotrexate dose compared with the maximum tolerated methotrexate dose in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to methotrexate monotherapy. Methods: In this open-label, randomised controlled trial, we recruited methotrexate-naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis and a disease duration of less than 2 years across 24 secondary or tertiary care hospitals across Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. At initiation, methotrexate was given orally and increased to the maximum tolerated dose by week 12. Patients who did not achieve remission on the basis of the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) at week 24 were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive adalimumab (40 mg biweekly) combined with a continued maximum tolerated dose of methotrexate or adalimumab combined with a reduced dose of methotrexate. The primary endpoint was non-inferiority of adalimumab plus reduced-dose methotrexate to adalimumab plus maximal-dose methotrexate based on SDAI remission at week 48, assessed in the modified full-analysis set with a pre-specified non-inferiority margin of −15%, based on a two-sided 90% CI. Adverse events were assessed in the safety analysis set. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03505008 and has been completed. Findings: From April 18, 2018, to June 2, 2020, from 323 patients screened, 300 were enrolled, and 291 patients were included in the full analysis set. The mean age was 57·7 years (SD 15·2), 217 (75%) were female, 74 (25%) were male, and all patients were of Asian ethnicity. The mean SDAI at study enrolment was 26·5 (SD 12·4). 52 patients discontinued the study before week 24 or at week 24 before randomisation. At week 24, 105 (36%) of 291 patients achieved remission and continued methotrexate monotherapy through week 48. 134 (46%) did not achieve remission at week 24 and were randomly assigned to receive adalimumab plus the maximum tolerated dose of methotrexate (n=68) or adalimumab plus reduced-dose methotrexate (n=66). Remission at week 48 was achieved in 25 (38%) of 66 and 27 (44%) of 61 patients, respectively, with an adjusted risk difference of 6·4% (90% CI −7·0 to 19·8), which met the non-inferiority margin of −15%. Adverse events after week 24 tended to be more frequent in the maximum tolerated dose group than in the reduced-dose group (24 [35%] vs 13 [20%], p=0·054). Between week 24 and 48, there were 14 serious adverse events (6 in the methotrexate monotherapy group, 5 in the adalimumab plus maximal-dose methotrexate, and 3 in the adalimumab plus reduced-dose methotrexate group), and no deaths. Interpretation: The MIRACLE study showed that the efficacy of adalimumab combined with reduced methotrexate dose was not inferior to that with the maximum tolerated methotrexate dose, with a tendency to a better safety profile. Funding: Eisai.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e215-e224
JournalThe Lancet Rheumatology
Volume5
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Apr

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Reduced versus maximum tolerated methotrexate dose concomitant with adalimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (MIRACLE): a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this