The excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins results in fibrosis-a condition implicated in several diseased conditions, such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, viral hepatitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Despite its prevalence, direct and effective treatments for fibrosis are lacking, warranting the development of better therapeutic strategies. Accumulating evidence has shown that liver fibrosis-a condition previously considered irreversible-is reversible in specific conditions. Immune cells residing in or infiltrating the liver (e.g., macrophages) are crucial in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Given this background, the roles and action mechanisms of various immune cells and their subsets in the progression and recovery of liver fibrosis, particularly concerning nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, are discussed in this review. Furthermore, the development of better therapeutic strategies based on stage-specific properties and using advanced techniques as well as the mechanisms underlying recovery are elaborated. In conclusion, we consider the review comprehensively provides the present achievements and future possibilities revolving around fibrosis treatment.
- immune cell regulation
- liver fibrosis
- nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
- tissue resident memory T cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas