Relationship Between Conventional Medicine Chapters in ICD-10 and Kampo Pattern Diagnosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

Xuefeng Wu, Thomas K. Le, Ayako Maeda-Minami, Tetsuhiro Yoshino, Yuko Horiba, Masaru Mimura, Kenji Watanabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: The newest revision to the International Classification of Diseases, the 11th edition (ICD-11) includes disease classifications from East Asian medicine, including traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo medicine). These disease classifications allow for comparisons between disease classifications from conventional medicine and Kampo medicine. Design/Location/Subjects/Interventions: This is an exploratory, cross-sectional study exploring the relationship between conventional medicine diagnoses and Kampo medicine diagnoses at a large Kampo clinic in Japan. Patients were seen from October 1st, 2014 to June 30th, 2019 and were 20 years of age or older. Outcome measures: Patients presented with one or more conventional medicine ICD-10 codes into the clinic and were given one descriptor from the ICD-11 within the heat-cold module, excess-deficiency module, and an optional body constituents module. The distribution of these Kampo medicine codes was examined in relation to conventional medicine chapters. Results: 1,209 patients were included in our final analysis. Patient number, ages, sex ratio, and BMI varied within conventional medicine ICD-10 chapters and Kampo medicine descriptor codes. Certain conventional medicine chapters are related to specific Kampo medicine descriptor codes, such as chapter IV (endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases) with excess, heat, and kidney qi deficiency. Conclusion: The advent of the ICD-11 allows for systematic, standardized comparisons between Kampo medicine, and contemporary medicine. In this exploratory study, our findings support the independence of Kampo medicine pattern descriptors with ICD-10 conventional medicine chapters. Code overrepresentations in relation to conventional medicine diseases and by age and sex should be an area of future investigation to best understand how to synergize and improve patient care.

Original languageEnglish
Article number751403
JournalFrontiers in Pharmacology
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec 20


  • ICD-10
  • ICD-11
  • conventional medicine
  • international classification of diseases
  • kampo
  • pattern diagnosis
  • traditional Japanese medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Relationship Between Conventional Medicine Chapters in ICD-10 and Kampo Pattern Diagnosis: A Cross-Sectional Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this