Relationship between drinking, smoking, and dietary habits and the body mass index of Japanese alcoholic men

Yuko Hosokawa, Akira Yokoyama, Tetsuji Yokoyama, Norihito Wada, Shuka Mori, Toshifumi Matsui, Yuki Mizukami, Hitoshi Maesato, Katsuya Maruyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Malnutrition and emaciation in alcoholics is associated with various alcoholism-related diseases, including Wernicke's encephalopathy, aero-digestive tract cancer, and serious metabolic disorders. We used a self-administered questionnaire survey for structured dietary habit screening to evaluate the dietary profiles of 467 Japanese alcoholic men aged 40 years or over and their relationship to body mass index (BMI). Their average daily ethanol consumption was 119 +/- 65 g (845 +/- 463 kcal). The survey showed that 50.5% of the subjects consumed three meals a day; 32.8%, two meals; 12.2%, one meal; and 4.5% rarely ate. The meals mainly consisted of carbohydrates and protein, with few vegetables. Daily alcohol consumption was inversely correlated with the frequency of meals, drinking milk, and consuming confectionery. The subjects who lived with their family (72.8%) consumed more meals than the subjects liv- ing alone. After excluding 22 subjects with leg edema or ascites, the average BMI was 21.3 +/- 3.2. The group with the lowest BMI values (<18.5) accounted for 19.3% of the subjects, and those with the highest BMI values (> or = 25) accounted for 11.5%. A multivariate stepwise logistic analysis showed that BMI increased 0.15 per 22 g ethanol consumed daily and decreased 0.03 per + 10 cigarettes smoked daily, 0.43 per decrease by one in daily frequency of meals, and 0.54 per category (daily, occasionally, rarely, seldom) of milk consumption. The likelihood of a low BMI <18.5 was significantly and independently associated with smoking [OR (95%CI) =1.24 (1.02-1.51) per +10 cigarettes] and with intake of seafood [0.62 (0.41-0.94) per +1 category], milk [1.52 (1.16-2.00) per +1 category] and green and yellow vegetables [1.52 (1.05-2.21) per +1 category]. Intervention in regard to diet as well as drinking is important to preventing malnutrition and emaciation in alcoholics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-37
Number of pages13
JournalNihon Arukōru Yakubutsu Igakkai zasshi = Japanese journal of alcohol studies & drug dependence
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Feb
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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