Relationship between perceived indoor temperature and self-reported risk for frailty among community-dwelling older people

Yukie Nakajima, Steven M. Schmidt, Agneta Malmgren Fänge, Mari Ono, Toshiharu Ikaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated the relationship between perceived indoor temperature in winter and frailty among community-dwelling older people. This cross-sectional study included 342 people 65 years and older in Japan. Participants answered questions about demographics, frailty, housing, and perceived indoor temperature in winter. Participants were grouped based on perceived indoor temperature (Cold or Warm) and economic satisfaction (Unsatisfied or Satisfied). Differences in the frailty index between perceived indoor temperature groups and economic satisfaction groups were tested by using ANCOVA and MANCOVA. An interaction effect showed that people in the Cold Group and unsatisfied with their economic status had significantly higher frailty index scores (F(1, 336) = 5.95, p = 0.015). Furthermore, the frailty index subscale of fall risk was the specific indicator of frailty that accounted for this significant relationship. While previous research has shown the risks related to cold indoor temperature in homes, interestingly among those who reported cold homes, only those who were not satisfied with their economic situation reported being at increased risk for frailty. This highlights the potential importance of preventing fuel poverty to prevent frailty.

Original languageEnglish
Article number613
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Feb 2


  • Economic satisfaction
  • Fall risk
  • Home
  • Old age
  • Winter season

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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