Reproduction of Mesobiotus: Comparison of Morphology and Behavior in the Family Macrobiotidae (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada)

Kenta Sugiura, Midori Matsumoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The genus Mesobiotus was separated from the genus Macrobiotus in 2016 and the name referred to its phylogenetic position among the family Macrobiotidae; however, knowledge of the reproductive behavior of this genus is limited compared to those of Paramacrobiotus and Macrobiotus. This study comprehensively provides the reproductive traits, including the gamete morphologies and behavioral observations, of Mesobiotus. The morphology of its spermatozoon showed a length that was intermediary among those of Paramacrobiotus and Macrobiotus species. The sequence of mating behavior was generally conserved in the three species of Macrobiotidae. They showed the described five steps observed in Paramacrobiotus and Macrobiotus; however, the males of Mesobiotus repeated ejaculations in a mating session, which is the first observation of premature ejaculation in tardigrades. Our results indicated that Mesobiotus has the potential to be a model to show the linkage between genera with respect to the morphology and behavior in the family Macrobiotidae.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)444-450
Number of pages7
JournalZoological Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Oct 1


  • Mesobiotus sp.
  • gametes
  • mating
  • reproduction
  • tardigrades

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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