Review of gender research in cross-cultural psychology since 1990: Conceptual definitions and methodology

Atsuko Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


A review of the cross-cultural research on gender in psychology since 1990 reveals (1) conceptual confusion of the definitions of sex, gender, man, and woman; (2) diversification, refinement, reification, and a problem-solving orientation in the research topics; and (3) the possibility of the elucidation of the psychological sex-difference mechanism in relation to the biological sex differences. A comparison of 1990 and 2000 cross-cultural psychological articles published in "Sex Roles" found that overall, the research is Western-centered and some methodological problems remain to be solved concerning the measures and the sampling. These findings lead to the following suggestions for cross-cultural research on gender to resolve the problems and contribute to the development of psychology in general: (1) use of an operational definition for conceptual equivalence; (2) conducting more etic-approach research; (3) avoiding ethnocentric or androcentric research attitudes; (4) use of a theoretical framework; (5) strict examination of methodologies; and (6) examination of the specific context of participants in terms of cultural diversity, dynamics of husband-wife relationships, and relationships with husbands and fathers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-172
Number of pages13
JournalShinrigaku Kenkyu
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Jun
Externally publishedYes


  • Conceptual definitions
  • Cross-cultural psychology
  • Etic and emic approaches
  • Gender
  • Methodology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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