Risk factors for suicide in Bali: A psychological autopsy study

Toshiyuki Kurihara, Motoichiro Kato, Robert Reverger, I. Gusti Rai Tirta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Background. The suicide rate in Bali has significantly increased in recent years. However, to date, there have been no case-control studies investigating risk factors for suicide. Methods. A psychological autopsy study was conducted comparing 60 suicide cases and 120 living controls matched in age, sex, and area of residence. Results. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the following risk factors for suicide: at least one diagnosis of axis-I mental disorder (OR: 14.84 CI: 6.12 - 35.94); low level of religious involvement (OR: 7.24 CI: 2.28 - 22.95); and severe interpersonal problems (OR: 3.86 CI: 1.36 - 11.01). Forty-eight (80.0%) of the suicide cases were diagnosed with mental disorders; however, only 16.7% visited a primary care health professional and none received psychiatric treatment during the 1 month prior to death. Conclusion. Clinical, religious, and psychosocial factors were associated with suicide. These results highlight the significance of early recognition and treatment of mental disorders, religious activities, and interpersonal problem-solving strategies for suicide prevention in Bali.

Original languageEnglish
Article number327
JournalBMC public health
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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