Semisupervised Federated-Learning-Based Intrusion Detection Method for Internet of Things

Ruijie Zhao, Yijun Wang, Zhi Xue, Tomoaki Ohtsuki, Bamidele Adebisi, Guan Gui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Federated learning (FL) has become an increasingly popular solution for intrusion detection to avoid data privacy leakage in Internet of Things (IoT) edge devices. Existing FL-based intrusion detection methods, however, suffer from three limitations: 1) model parameters transmitted in each round may be used to recover private data, which leads to security risks; 2) not independent and identically distributed (non-IID) private data seriously adversely affect the training of FL (especially distillation-based FL); and 3) high communication overhead caused by the large model size greatly hinders the actual deployment of the solution. To address these problems, this article develops an intrusion detection method based on a semisupervised FL scheme via knowledge distillation. First, our proposed method leverages unlabeled data via distillation method to enhance the classifier performance. Second, we build a model based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for extracting deep features of the traffic packets, and take this model as both the classifier network and discriminator network. Third, the discriminator is designed to improve the quality of each client's predicted labels, and to avoid the failure of distillation training caused by a large number of incorrect predictions under private non-IID data. Moreover, the combination of the hard-label strategy and voting mechanism further reduces communication overhead. The experiments on the real-world traffic data set with three non-IID scenarios show that our proposed method can achieve better detection performance as well as lower communication overhead than state-of-the-art methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8645-8657
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2023 May 15


  • Federated learning (FL)
  • intrusion detection
  • knowledge distillation
  • semisupervised learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Signal Processing
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Computer Science Applications


Dive into the research topics of 'Semisupervised Federated-Learning-Based Intrusion Detection Method for Internet of Things'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this