Background Metabolic syndrome and obesity are known risk factors for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), especially for erosive esophagitis. Although non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) is probably associated with obesity or other metabolic syndrome, there is little direct evidence to support this assertion. Methods Workers in Keio University who underwent a general health examination between September 2006 and August 2007 were enrolled. Reflux symptom questionnaires were administered and metabolic parameters were obtained. The severity of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) was scored using a validated scale of videoesophagography. Key Results Two hundred and eighty-three subjects (243 men and 40 women; mean age 49.8 ± 6.9 years) with no radiographic evidence of erosive esophagitis were enrolled. The severity of GER was worse among men than among women, whereas the severity of reflux symptoms was worse among women. The severity of GER was associated with age and serum triglyceride levels in men, and with the serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in women. The severity of reflux symptoms, however, was not associated with metabolic parameters. There were more women than men with reflux symptoms but without GER ('presumed' functional heartburn group), compared with subjects with neither GER nor reflux symptoms. In men, the presence of both reflux symptoms and GER ('presumed' NERD group) was associated with the serum triglyceride levels. Conclusions & Inferences While NERD is associated with serum lipid levels, functional heartburn is not. The prevalence of GER was greater among men; conversely, the prevalence of functional heartburn was greater among women.
- functional heartburn
- metabolic syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems