Seventeen-year clinical outcome of schizophrenia in Bali

T. Kurihara, M. Kato, R. Reverger, I. G.R. Tirta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To examine the 17-year clinical outcome of schizophrenia and its predictors in Bali. Methods: Subjects were 59 consecutively admitted first-episode schizophrenia patients. Their clinical outcome was evaluated by standardized symptomatic remission criteria based on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores and operational functional remission criteria at 17-year follow-up. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) over 17 years was also calculated as another index of clinical outcome. Results: Among these 59 patients, 43 (72.9%) could be followed-up, 15 (25.4%) had died, and one (1.7%) was alive but refused to participate in the study. Combined remission (i.e. symptomatic and functional remission) was achieved in 14 patients (23.7% of original sample). Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) was a significant baseline predictor of combined remission. Mean age at death of deceased subjects was 35.7, and SMR was 4.85 (95% CI: 2.4-7.3), indicating that deaths were premature. Longer DUP was associated with excess mortality. Conclusions: The long-term outcome of schizophrenia in Bali was heterogeneous, demonstrating that a quarter achieved combined remission, half were in nonremission, and a quarter had died at 17-year follow-up. DUP was a significant predictor both for combined remission and mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-338
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Psychiatry
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2011 Jul


  • Developing countries
  • First-episode psychosis
  • Outcome assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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