Specimen preparation for X-ray diffraction imaging experiments at cryogenic temperature

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


X-ray diffraction imaging (XDI) experiments at cryogenic temperatures allows us to analyze the internal structures of frozen-hydrated biological cells and cellular organelles. As biological specimens are easily degraded by drying, a humidity-controlled chamber is developed to maintain a moist atmosphere during specimen preparation. In the chamber, specimen particles are dispersed onto windows of thin silicon nitride membranes. Next, the particles are flash-cooled to a frozen-hydrated state using liquid ethane. This cryogenic method of specimen preparation allows us to harvest a large number of biological cells and isolated cellular organelles at desired periods in the cell cycle. Subsequently, the prepared specimens can be stored in liquid nitrogen until the use. In this chapter, the methods and devices developed for preparing frozen-hydrated biological specimens are described. In addition, the characteristics of frozen-hydrated specimens are described.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringer Series in Optical Sciences
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages18
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Jan 1

Publication series

NameSpringer Series in Optical Sciences
ISSN (Print)0342-4111
ISSN (Electronic)1556-1534

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


Dive into the research topics of 'Specimen preparation for X-ray diffraction imaging experiments at cryogenic temperature'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this