Structural Invariance of Vocational Interests Across Japanese and American Cultures

Terence J.G. Tracey, Naotaka Watanabe, Paul L. Schneider

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48 Citations (Scopus)


Two samples of college students (Japanese, N = 373; American, N = 401) were given the Inventory of Occupational Preferences (T. J. G. Tracey & J. Rounds, 1996a), and the structural invariance across cultures was examined at the item and at various scale levels. Correlations of principal-components factor loadings demonstrated that the item structure was similar across cultures. Three separate scale structures were examined: Holland's six-type circular model, Tracey and Rounds's eight-type circular model, and Tracey and Rounds's spherical representation. The fit of the six-type and spherical models to the Japanese sample was significantly worse than their fit to the U.S. sample. There were no differences in cross-cultural fit for the eight-type model. Few structure differences were found between and within genders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)346-354
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1997 Oct

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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