Structure-dependent mixed valence of Sm on Cu(1 1 1) studied by XPS and STM

Yasuo Nakayama, Hiroshi Kondoh, Toshiaki Ohta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Geometric and electronic structures of adsorbed Sm on Cu(1 1 1) were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface morphology and Sm valency change with the Sm coverage, suggesting that Sm atoms in the islands have a valence of approximately 2.7 and those diffusing are divalent. Heating the adlayers yields surface alloy and close-packed overlayer of Sm depending on the coverage and temperature. Atomically resolved STM images indicate that the surface of the alloy phase is not rigid. The closed packed overlayer of a mixed valence Sm is observed as a uniform atomic species.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-62
Number of pages10
JournalSurface Science
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Mar 10
Externally publishedYes


  • Copper
  • Growth
  • Lanthanides
  • Low energy electron diffraction (LEED)
  • Scanning tunneling microscopy
  • Surface structure, morphology, roughness, and topography
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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