Successful management of hyperammonemia with hemodialysis on day 2 during 5-fluorouracil treatment in a patient with gastric cancer: a case report with 5-fluorouracil metabolite analyses

Yoshinao Ozaki, Hirotaka Imamaki, Aki Ikeda, Mitsuaki Oura, Shunsaku Nakagawa, Taro Funakoshi, Shigeki Kataoka, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Takahiro Horimatsu, Atsushi Yonezawa, Takeshi Matsubara, Motoko Yanagita, Manabu Muto, Norihiko Watanabe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Hyperammonemia is an important adverse event associated with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) from 5FU metabolite accumulation. We present a case of an advanced gastric cancer patient with chronic renal failure, who was treated with 5FU/leucovorin (LV) infusion chemotherapy (2-h infusion of LV and 5FU bolus followed by 46-h 5FU continuous infusion on day 1; repeated every 2 weeks) and developed hyperammonemia, with the aim of exploring an appropriate hemodialysis (HD) schedule to resolve its symptoms. Methods: The blood concentrations of 5FU and its metabolites, α-fluoro-β-alanine (FBAL), and monofluoroacetate (FA) of a patient who had hyperammonemia from seven courses of palliative 5FU/LV therapy for gastric cancer were measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: On the third day of the first cycle, the patient presented with symptomatic hyperammonemia relieved by emergency HD. Thereafter, the 5FU dose was reduced; however, in cycles 2–4, the patient developed symptomatic hyperammonemia and underwent HD on day 3 for hyperammonemia management. In cycles 5–7, the timing of scheduled HD administration was changed from day 3 to day 2, preventing symptomatic hyperammonemia. The maximum ammonia and 5FU metabolite levels were significantly lower in cycles 5–7 than in cycles 2–4 (NH3 75 ± 38 vs 303 ± 119 μg/dL, FBAL 13.7 ± 2.5 vs 19.7 ± 2.0 μg/mL, FA 204.0 ± 91.6 vs 395.9 ± 12.6 ng/mL, mean ± standard deviation, all p < 0.05). After seven cycles, partial response was confirmed. Conclusion: HD on day 2 instead of 3 may prevent hyperammonemia in 5FU/LV therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)693-699
Number of pages7
JournalCancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Volume86
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Nov 1
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • 5-Fluorouracil
  • Chronic renal failure
  • Hyperammonemia
  • Pharmacokinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Cancer Research
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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