Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene encoding a phosphorylation- Activated but ATPgated chloride channel. Previous studies suggested that VX-770 [ivacaftor, N-(2,4-di- Tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4- oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide], a CFTR potentiator now used in clinics, increases the open probability of CFTR by shifting the gating conformational changes to favor the open channel configuration. Recently the chloride channel blocker and CFTR potentiator 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoate (NPPB) has been reported to enhance CFTR activity by a mechanism that exploits the ATP hydrolysis-driven, nonequilibrium gating mechanism unique to CFTR. Surprisingly however, NPPB increased the activity of nonhydrolytic G551D-CFTR, the third most common disease- Associated mutation. Here, we further investigated the mechanism of NPPB's effects on CFTR gating by assessing its interaction with well-studied VX-770. Interestingly, once G551D-CFTR was maximally potentiated by VX-770, NPPB further increased its activity. However, quantitative analysis of this drug-drug interaction suggests that this pharmacologic synergism is not due to independent actions of NPPB and VX-770 on CFTR gating; instead, our data support a dependent mechanism involving two distinct binding sites. This latter idea is further supported by the observation that the locked-open time of a hydrolysis-deficient mutant K1250A was shortened by NPPB but prolonged by VX-770. In addition, the effectiveness of NPPB, but not of VX-770, was greatly diminished in a mutant whose second nucleotide-binding domain was completely removed. Interpreting these results under the framework of current understanding of CFTR gating not only reveals insights into the mechanism of action for different CFTR potentiators but also brings us one step forward to a more complete schematic for CFTR gating.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine