Purpose: Bi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (bpMRI) with diffusion-weighted images has wide utility in diagnosing clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa). However, bpMRI yields more false-negatives for PI-RADS category 3 lesions than multiparametric (mp)MRI with dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI. We investigated the utility of synthetic MRI with relaxometry maps for bpMRI-based diagnosis of csPCa. Methods: One hundred and five treatment-naïve patients who underwent mpMRI and synthetic MRI before prostate biopsy for suspected PCa between August 2019 and December 2020 were prospectively included. Three experts and three basic prostate radiologists evaluated the diagnostic performance of conventional bpMRI and synthetic bpMRI for csPCa. PI-RADS version 2.1 category 3 lesions were identified by consensus, and relaxometry measurements (T1-value, T2-value, and proton density [PD]) were performed. The diagnostic performance of relaxometry measurements for PI-RADS category 3 lesions in peripheral zone was compared with that of DCE-MRI. Histopathological evaluation results were used as the reference standard. Statistical analysis was performed using the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and McNemar test. Results: In 102 patients without significant MRI artefacts, the diagnostic performance of conventional bpMRI was not significantly different from that of synthetic bpMRI for all readers (p = 0.11–0.79). The AUCs of the combination of T1-value, T2-value, and PD (T1 + T2 + PD) for csPCa in peripheral zone for PI-RADS category 3 lesions were 0.85 for expert and 0.86 for basic radiologists, with no significant difference between T1 + T2 + PD and DCE-MRI for both expert and basic radiologists (p = 0.29–0.45). Conclusion: Synthetic MRI with relaxometry maps shows promise for contrast media-free evaluation of csPCa.
- Contrast agents
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Primary prostate cancer
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging