Temperament, personality, and treatment outcome in major depression: A 6-month preliminary prospective study

Yuka Kudo, Atsuo Nakagawa, Taisei Wake, Natsumi Ishikawa, Chika Kurata, Mizuki Nakahara, Teruo Nojima, Masaru Mimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Despite available treatments, major depression is a highly heterogeneous disorder, which leads to problems in classification and treatment specificity. Previous studies have reported that personality traits predict and influence the course and treatment response of depression. The Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (T&P) assesses eight major constructs of personality traits observed in those who develop depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of T&P’s eight constructs on the treatment outcome of depressed patients. Patients and methods: A preliminary 6-month prospective study was conducted with a sample of 51 adult patients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) without remarkable psychomotor disturbance using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. All patients received comprehensive assessment including the T&P at baseline. We compared each T&P construct score between patients who achieved remission and those who did not achieve remission after 6 months of treatment for depression using both subjective and objective measures. All 51 (100%) patients received the 6-month follow-up assessment. Results: This study demonstrated that higher scores on T&P personal reserve predicted poorer treatment outcome in patients with MDD. Higher levels of personal reserve, rejection sensitivity, and self-criticism correlated with higher levels of depression. Higher levels of rejection sensitivity and self-criticism were associated with non-remitters; however, when we controlled for baseline depression severity, this relationship did not show significance. Conclusion: Although the results are preliminary, this study suggests that high scores on T&P personal reserve predict poorer treatment outcome and T&P rejection sensitivity and self-criticism correlate with the severity of depression. Longer follow-up studies with large sample sizes are required to improve the understanding of these relationships.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-24
Number of pages8
JournalNeuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1


  • Classification
  • Personal reserve
  • Rejection sensitivity
  • Self-criticism
  • Temperament and personality questionnaire
  • Treatment outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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